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Images of Normal and Reverse Faults
Normal Faults
Normal faults are produced by extensional stresses, which causes the headwall of the fault to sink against the footwall. Normal faults are common in the Basin and Range Province of the western United States (eastern California, most of Nevada and western Utah).
Normal fault in Mosaic Cyn, Death Valley Normal fault in Mosaic Canyon in Death Valley Fault exposed in wall of Ubehebe Crater in Death Valley Normal fault exposed in roadcut, south end of Resting Spring Mtns, Death Valley region Shoshone outcrop with normal faults Normal faults illustrated in Charlie Brown outcrop
Normal fault in Mosaic Canyon, Death Valley. The person's head is touching the headwall, which has moved down relative to the footwall Normal fault in Mosaic Canyon, Death Valley. Normal fault exposed in wall of Ubehebe crater, a phreato-volcanic explosion pit in northern Death Valley Normal fault exposed in roadcut near Shoshone, CA. The left side headwall is down relative to the right (layers are not connected to each other) Normal faults in roadcut near Shoshone, CA. There are two faults at least. Can you see them? Normal faults illustrated in roadcut near Shoshone, CA (we call it the "Charlie Brown outcrop)
Scarp and triangular facets near Mormon Point, Death Valley Mormon Point Turtleback fault Copper Canyon turtleback at Death Valley Wineglass canyon in Black Mountains, Death Valley Illustrated version of wineglass canyon in Death Valley Small normal offset in Proterozoic gneiss at Death Valley
Scarp and triangular facets near Mormon Point, Death Valley Mormon Point is a turtleback fault, related to detachment faults. A scarp runs across the center of the picture Copper Canyon turtleback. The dome-shaped mountain is an upward warped fault surface related to detachment faulting Wineglass canyon in Black Mountains of Death Valley. Illustrated view of wineglass canyon: alluvial fan makes the base, narrow lower canyon the stem, and upper canyon the cup. Small normal offset in Proterozoic gneiss at Death Valley
Two fault scarps on alluvial fan at Badwater, Death Valley scarps at Badwater, Death Valley Fault scarp and linear basalt cones at south end of Death Valley Detachment fault surface near Natural Bridge, Death Valley Detachment fault surface near Natural Bridge, Death Valley Exposure of detachment fault in Natural Bridge area of Death Valley
Two fault scarps from relatively recent earthquakes cross an alluvial fan at Badwater, Death Valley  Fault scarps from relatively recent earthquakes cross an alluvial fan at Badwater, Death Valley(highest resolution available) Scarp and linear arrangement of basalt cones indicates a normal fault zone in Death Valley (highest resolution available) Fault gouge surface on Badwater Turtleback detachment fault near Natural Bridge, Death Valley (highest resolution available) Surface of Badwater detachment fault near Natural Bridge in Death Valley (highest resolution available) Surface of Badwater detachment fault near Natural Bridge in Death Valley (highest resolution available)
Scarp of the 1872 Lone Pine earthquake, Owens Valley, CA Sierra Nevada escarpment at Lone Pine, Mt. Whitney in center Rangefront fault at Calico Ghost Town, Mojave Desert Triangular facets, wineglass canyons and recent scarps in Sangre de Cristo Range of Colorado Triangular facets, wineglass canyons and recent scarps in Sangre de Cristo Range of Colorado Triangular facets and scarps in Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado
Scarp of the 1872 Lone Pine earthquake in the Owens Valley of California. This quake was close to magnitude 8 Large scale scarp, the eastern escarpment of the Sierra Nevada near Lone Pine (Mt. Whitney near center of photo) Rangefront fault at Calico Ghost Town in California's Mojave Desert Triangular facets, wineglass canyons and recent scarps in Sangre de Cristo Range of Colorado Illustrations of triangular facets, wineglass canyons and recent scarps in Sangre de Cristo Range of Colorado Triangular facets, wineglass canyons and recent scarps in Sangre de Cristo Range of Colorado
Gillems Bluff at Lava Beds National Monument, a normal fault scarp Scarp from geologically recent earthquakes, Wheeler Crest near Bishop CA Scarp from geologically recent earthquakes, Wheeler Crest near Bishop CA Topaz Lake, an artificially filled playa and graben, CA/NV border Fault scarp at southern end of Antelope Valley, eastern Sierra Nevada Horst and graben at Antelope Valley, eastern Sierra Nevada
Gillems Bluff at Lava Beds National Monument, a normal fault scarp. Adjacent Tule Lake is a graben. Scarp from geologically recent earthquakes, Wheeler Crest of the Sierra Nevada near Bishop CA Illustrated scarp from geologically recent earthquakes, Wheeler Crest near Bishop CA Topaz Lake and the Antelope Valley, CA/NV border. This is a horst/graben complex with an artificially filled lake Fault scarp at southern end of Antelope Valley, eastern Sierra Nevada. Scarp indicated by shadows on ridge. Horst (range) and graben (fault valley) at Antelope Valley in the the eastern Sierra Nevada
"Bearclaw" scarp at Meadowcliff in Antelope Valley, CA Lake Tahoe, a fault graben lake Lake Tahoe, a fault graben lake Fairview Peak fault scarps from 1954 earthquake Double scarp and offset channel from 1954 Fairview Peak earthquake Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3)
"Bearclaw" scarp at Meadowcliff in Antelope Valley, CA. The cliffs are resistant granitic rock Lake Tahoe is a natural fault graben lake partially dammed by lava flows. Lake Tahoe fills a fault graben on the edge of the Sierra Nevada block Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3) Double fault scarp and offset channel from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3) Teachers climb up Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3)
Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3) Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3) Fairview Peak fault scarp and trench from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3) Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3) Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3) Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3)
Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3) Detail of Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3) Fairview Peak fault scarp and extensional trench from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3) Detail of Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3) Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3). Note slope break on ridge. Fairview Peak fault scarp from 1954 earthquake in central Nevada (Mag 7.1-7.3). Note slope break on ridge
 Basin and Range topography near Walker Lake, NV Small normal fault in Navajo Sandstone at Zion National Park Normal fault near entrance to Arches National Park Normal fault exposed at entrance to Arches National Park Normal fault in roadcut at entrance to Arches National Park Normal fault near the entrance of Arches National Park in Utah
Basin and Range topography near Walker Lake, Nevada. The mountain ranges are called horsts, the valleys are grabens A small normal fault in Navajo Sandstone at  Zion National Park in Utah A roadcut at the entrance to Arches National Park in Utah exposes a normal fault related to solution of salt beneath the region A roadcut at the entrance to Arches National Park in Utah exposes a normal fault related to solution of salt beneath the region A roadcut at the entrance to Arches National Park in Utah exposes a normal fault related to solution of salt beneath the region A roadcut at the entrance to Arches National Park in Utah exposes a normal fault related to solution of salt beneath the region
Slinkard Valley graben          
Slinkard Valley, a small active fault graben in the eastern Sierra Nevada near Monitor Pass, California          
 
Reverse and Thrust Faults
Reverse and thrust faults are caused by compressional stress, which causes the headwall to be pushed up and over the footwall. Thrust faults have a fault plane that is inclined less then 45 degrees from a horizontal plane. Such faults are especially prevalent in mountains formed by continent-continent or terrane-continent collisions.
Reverse fault in Glacier National Park near Grinnell Glacier Reverse fault with offset layers and drag folds Reverse fault along Grinnell Glacier trail Reverse fault exposure in Sun Valley Canyon, Montana Chief Mtn and Lewis Thrust at Glacier National Park Keystone Thrust near Las Vegas
A reverse fault in Proterozoic rocks along the Grinnell Glacier trail in Glacier National Park Same picture as previous, with fault and offset layers outlined. The fault shows drag folding. Another view of fault along Grinnell Glacier trail in Glacier National Park Examining a thrust fault exposure in Sun Canyon, Montana, south of Glacier National Park Chief Mountain in Glacier National Park is an overthrust. The cliffs were pushed over the younger rocks below and then isolated by erosion The Keystone Thrust near Las Vegas, NV has pushed the older gray limestone layers over the younger yellow and red Mesozoic layers
Keystone thrust near Las Vegas Fault dividing Franciscan chert and graywacke, Marin Headlands, CA Headwall up on section of Landers fault, Mojave Desert Headwall up reverse fault exposure Slickensides in San Antonio Canyon, San Gabriel Mtns Ortigalita fault in Del Puerto Canyon, Coast Ranges, California
The Keystone Thrust near Las Vegas, NV has pushed the older gray limestone layers over the younger yellow and red Mesozoic layers High angle fault separating Franciscan chert from graywacke at the Presidio, San Francisco, CA Headwall up on section of Landers fault, Mojave Desert. Movement was actually lateral, but shifted a ridge, forming a scarp. Details of the 1992 Landers Earthquake here Headwall up on section of Landers fault, Mojave Desert. Movement was actually lateral, but shifted a ridge, forming a scarp Slickensides (striations and gouges caused by fault motions) in San Antonio Canyon, San Gabriel Mtns Ortigalita fault in Del Puerto Canyon, Coast Ranges, California. Sense of offset not clear, could by normal or reverse
Fault slickensides in Del Puerto Canyon slickensides in Del Puerto Canyon, Coast Ranges, California Reverse fault in the Providence Mtns of CA Fault on the Palms to Pines Highway, CA    
Slickensides exposed in Del Puerto Canyon in the California Coast Ranges Slickensides are the scratches and striations left by fault motions. Upper Del Puerto Canyon Reverse fault in the Providence Mountains of the Mojave National Scenic Preserve of California Fault on the Palms to Pines Highway, out of Palm Desert, California    
           
           
Landscape Features of Faulting
 
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           

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